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Acute Kidney Failure: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis And Treatment
Boldsky | 1st Jun, 2020 07:19 PM
  • Symptoms Of Acute Kidney Failure

    • Decrease in urine output
    • Difficulty in breathing
    • Pain or pressure in the chest
    • Feeling confused
    • Feeling tired
    • Swelling in the legs, ankles or feet
    • Fatigue
    • Getting bruised easily
    • Loss of appetite
    • Hand tremor
    • Stomach and back pain
    • Fever
    • Nausea
    • Itching on the skin

  • Risk Factors Of Acute Kidney Failure

    • Hospitalised people who are in intensive care.
    • Age(people aged 65 or above) [5]
    • High blood pressure [6]
    • Kidney disease or kidney disorders
    • Liver disease
    • Type 2 diabetes [7]

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  • Complications Of Acute Kidney Failure

    • Build-up of fluid in the lungs can cause shortness of breath.
    • Weakness in the muscles
    • Chest pain
    • Permanent kidney damage
    • Death

  • Diagnosis Of Acute Kidney Failure

    The diagnosis of acute kidney failure is done based on an increase in serum creatinine and decrease in urine output. Diagnosis is done when there is a rise in serum creatinine by 0.3 mg/dl (26.5 μmol/l) or more in 48 hours to at least 1.5 times from the baseline within seven days [8].

    Other tests such as blood tests, imaging tests and urine tests can help rule out acute kidney failure.

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  • Treatment Of Acute Kidney Failure

    • Fluid therapy is given to acute kidney failure patients whose underlying cause is hypovolemia (loss of salt and water and decrease in blood volume). It is provided to restore the fluid balance and increase blood flow without causing any fluid overload [9].

    • Dialysis is a treatment procedure that involves removing excess water and toxins from the blood out of the body and purifies the blood using a machine. Dialysis can help treat acute kidney failure, but it may lead to a long-term risk of chronic kidney disease [10].

  • Prevention Of Acute Kidney Failure

    • Maintain a healthy diet
    • Monitor your blood pressure levels
    • Practice exercise regularly
    • Avoid having excess over-the-counter medications as they may hurt your kidneys and can cause acute kidney failure.

    Common FAQs

    Q. Can acute kidney failure be cured?

    A. Acute kidney failure can be reversible if it is diagnosed and treated early.

    Q. What colour is urine when your kidneys are failing?

    A. The urine colour may change which is a sign that your kidneys are failing-the urine is usually dark in colour.

    Q. What foods help repair kidneys?

    A. Bell peppers, garlic, onions, apples, cranberries and blueberries are some of the foods that can keep your kidneys healthy.

    Q. How do I detox my kidneys?

    A. Detox your kidneys by consuming lemon juice, watermelon, pomegranate, dates, basil and kidney beans.

Acute kidney failure or acute renal failure (ARF) now called acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs when your kidneys stop working suddenly over a short period of time, usually in two days or less. Acute kidney failure is a serious syndrome and requires immediate treatment. It is more common in people who are hospitalised, especially people who are critically ill and needs extensive care [1].

What Causes Acute Kidney Failure?

Acute renal failure (acute kidney injury) is defined as a sudden decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to an increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. According to the American Kidney Fund, acute kidney failure can occur due to the following reasons:

Diseases and conditions that reduce the blood flow to the kidneys can cause acute kidney failure, these include:

• Blood or fluid loss

• Blood pressure medications

• Heart disease [2]

• Heart attack

• Liver infection

• An infection [1]

• Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)

• Severe burns

• Dehydration [1]

Certain conditions can damage the kidneys and cause acute kidney failure, these include:

• Renal ischaemia (deficiency of blood in one or both the kidneys [1]

• Sepsis [1]

• Lupus

• Glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the tiny filters in the kidneys)

• Some blood or blood vessel disorders

• Medications that directly damage the kidneys such as antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs.

Diseases and conditions causing a blockage in the urinary tract can cause acute kidney failure, these include:

• Kidney stones [3]

• Bladder problems

• Enlarged prostate

• Certain cancers [4]

Everything You Need To Know About Kidney Disease

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