The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bequeathed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. It was the will of Alfred Nobel that gave birth to the Nobel Prizes, where he mentioned rewarding those who serve humanity. The Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's fortune.
The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900 and established five categories Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine. The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901 to Henry Dunant for his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross and Frederic Passy for being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress.
The 2019 Nobel Prize announcements began on Monday, 7 October, with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine being the first of the list. Nobel prize in medicine was awarded to hypoxia researchers William G Kaelin, Sir Peter Ratcliffe and Gregg L Semenza who shared the award for their work on how cells adapt to oxygen availability.
The second set of announcements were made on Tuesday, 8 October, with the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded for work on cosmology to James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz for improving the understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth's place in the cosmos.
James Peebles is a prominent name in modern cosmology, who set the foundation with his works on the big bang, dark matter and dark energy. Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor were recognised for their report on the first world beyond the solar system.
On Wednesday, 9 October, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was announced by the committee. John B Goodenough, M Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino made laureates for development of lithium-ion batteries.
On Thursday, 10 October, the Nobel Prize in Literature was announced. Two winners were named - one for 2019 and one for 2018 - because the prize was not awarded last year due to the Swedish Academy suspending it over a sexual assault scandal.
Olga Tokarczuk, who also won the Man Booker International Prize last year, was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize, with this year's Nobel going to Peter Handke.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2019 to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea.
As per the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, details about the nominations are restricted from being disclosed whether publicly or privately, for 50 years.